Italy: Housing for low-income households in Italy was traditionally provided by regional and local government agencies, and supported by subsidies from the national government, but such fundings were abolished by the end of the 1990s. In 2008, the Italian government introduced an Integrated System of Housing Funds (Sistema Integrato dei Fondi (SIF)) to support “social housing.” This initiative aimed to boost social housing provided by partnerships that included a mix of not-for-profit, private, community and government actors. The Integrated System of Housing Funds, in total, comprises an amount of €2.28 billion, €1 billion of which has been invested by the Cassa depositi e prestiti (a bank closely related to the Italian state), including €140 million by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, and €888 million by banks, insurance companies and pension funds. Drawbacks: The projects mostly focus on lower-middle-income households. The capacity to accommodate for the most vulnerable low-income households is limited.